I Jornada de Estudios sobre Masonería en Argentina y América Latina

Influencia de la Masonería en el Pensamiento Político de la Revolución de Mayo

22 de Mayo de 2010 / Sede de la Masonería Argentina. Pte. Perón 1242. CABA

Libro “Masonería en la Revolución de Mayo. Influencia en el pensamiento político”

Libro “Masonería en la Revolución de Mayo. Influencia en el pensamiento político”
La Gran Logia de la Argentina de Libres y Aceptados Masones y a la Universidad de Buenos Aires auspician esta primera edición de nuestro libro “Masonería en la Revolución de Mayo. Influencia en el pensamiento político”, constituyéndose en el primer libro impreso por la editorial de la Gran Logia de la Argentina “Ediciones Masónicas Argentina”. Una investigación del Centro de Estudios para la Gran Reunión Americana, del Equipo de investigación: Ricardo Romero, Roberto Sahakian, Verónica Baston, Antonio Las Heras, Nicolás Breglia, Andrea Marisa Romandetti Dasso, Jorge Cabezas, Sylvia Ruz Moreno, Germán Boure, María del Carmen Romano, Mario Luján Benítez Reyes y textos de Emilio Corbière.

Proyecto de Investigación: Influencia de la Masonería en la Revolución de Mayo

Director: Lic. Ricardo Romero

Nos proponemos en esta investigación analizar los componentes de las ideas masónicas a fin de relacionarlas en su influencia en la construcción del Estado Argentino. Haciendo una construcción analítica de fuentes históricas: documentos, escritos, proclamas y biografías, a fin de dilucidar cuáles fueron los componentes que marcan la influencia de la masonería en el Pensamiento Político de la Revolución de Mayo, sosteniendo que el esquema de Logia permitió un accionar similar a un partido de cuadros en el proceso revolucionario.

Análisis

La Logia Lautaro es la organización emblemática del análisis historiográfico. Debe su nombre a los relatos que contó Bernardo O´Higgins a Miranda sobre la oposición que realizó el toqui mapuche Lautaro a la dominación española de Chile en el siglo XVI. En sus principales objetivos estaba la de lograr la independencia de América, para establecer una confederación de repúblicas. Seguían la línea de los Caballeros Racionales, Logia creada en 1807 y que luego tomaría en Cadiz el nombre mismo de Lautaro.

Es interesante ver que la masonería llega de la mano de los liberales españoles y no de los ingleses, como critica la línea revisionista. De hecho, cuando llegan San Martín y Alvear a Buenos Aires en 1812, venían actuando logias previas, entre la más reconocida fueron las Independencia, una que levantó columnas en 1795 y otra del mismo nombre que trabajaron desde 1806 hasta confluir en la Lautaro. Si bien son logias de influencia masónica, las mismas eran operativas, con lo cual podían salirse del ritualismo y concentrarse en los objetivos específicos establecidos. Además, como comenta José Stevenson Collante, durante el proceso revolucionario, los miembros de la masonería tenían doble investidura, participaban en Logias Regulares Universales y de Logias Operativas de carácter patriótico para la revolución americana. Algunos de los principales miembros a destacar fueron: Francisco de Miranda, Andrés Bello y Simón Bolivar de Venezuela, José María Caro de México, Bernardo O´Higgins de Chiles, Juan Pablo Fretes de Paraguay; y en Argentina actuaron José de San Martín, Carlos de Alvear, Bernardo de Monteagudo, Gervasio Posadas y Tomás Guido, entre otros.

En lo académico, nos señala Emilio Corbiére (La Masonería) que si bien existen marcadas evidencias de los vínculos masónicos, por diversas razones, no se profundizan los análisis de sus implicancias. Existen trabajos que estudian el accionar de las Logias en la región, desde La Logia Lautaro por Emilio Gouchon, La masonería y la independencia de América por Nicolás Navarro, La Logia Lautaro y la independencia americana por Antonio Rodriguez Zuñiga, La Masonería a través de sus hombres por Alcides Lappas, o San Martín, la Logia Lautaro y la Francmasoneria por Fabián Onsari; o análisis específicos estudian la Revolución de Mayo, como uno reciente de Marcela Ternavasio, Gobernar la Revolución, que estudia los poderes en disputa en ese período, y en el cuál la pertenencia de los mismos a la masonería no es problematizada. Y si bien, existe la investigación Lucia Gálvez (Como dios manda? Iglesia, masonería y estado en la Argentina) quien estudia la participación de curas y masones en el proceso emancipatorio.

Lo cierto es, que la mayoría de éstos trabajos tienen un carácter esencialmente histórico y en todo caso, dejan en todo caso como un aspecto anecdótico el vinculo entre masonería y la emancipación, o la mirada se centra en un aspecto histórico del proceso. Se trata de dar una aproximación politológica al análisis para ver los componentes estructurales del pensamiento masónico derivados en el proyecto político de la revolución.



Lanzamiento de la Jornada

lunes, 9 de marzo de 2015

How To Gain Weight And Build More Muscle!

How To Gain Weight And Build More Muscle!

For many thin guys around the world, gaining weight without using illegal steroids has been a challenge. For thousands of lean young men, the dream is to gain weight, but no matter how much they eat they remain thin. Some people are naturally thin; that means their genetic makeup is in such a way that the body burns more calories than others. The very basic method of weight gain is to eat more calories than your body burns off. By providing the body with more calories, this balance can be altered and body mass can be increased. Weight training is of great importance in this context, which enables the body to absorb more nutrients from the food by increasing the level of certain hormones and increasing the muscle mass.
There are many incorrect beliefs and theories bout building muscle. The type of food to be eaten is an important factor which decides the type of weight gained, whether it is muscle mass or mere accumulation of fat. Some types of calories are not equal to others for gaining muscle; because most processed junk food contains empty, totally nutritionless calories. These foods promote accelerated fat storage, and do not provide the body with the correct nutrients essential for gaining muscle. High quality protein, which the body breaks down into amino acids, should be the centerpiece of all your meals. Intense exercise increases demand for amino acids, which support muscle repair and growth.
Another factor is the selection of the right type of weight training. Resistance exercises will help with muscle growth. Whereas aerobic exercises can result in the reduction of weight. For maximum muscle gain, the focus of your workouts should consist of free weight exercises, rather than machines or bodyweight exercises. To get a very effective workout, you must stimulate as many muscle fibers as possible, and machines do not do this. The main reason for this is a lack of stabilizer and synergist muscle development. Stabilizer and synergist muscles are supporting muscles that assist the main muscle in performing a complex lift.
The results of weight training can vary from person to person, and will usually depend on your consistency and commitment to your program. You should have the patience and motivation for building a powerful body with a consistent diet and exercise schedule.
Exercise Guidelines for building muscle:
Weight training involves the use of equipment that enables variable resistance. This resistance can come in the form of free weights like barbells and dumbbells, machines that use cables or pulleys to help you lift the weight, and bodyweight exercises like pull-ups or dips. The more stabilizers and synergists you work, the more muscle fibers stimulated. The exercises that work the large muscle groups are called compound (or multi-joint) movements that involve the simultaneous stimulation of many muscle groups. These compound exercises should be the foundation of any weight training program because they stimulate the most amount of muscle in the least amount of time. Multi-jointed free weight exercises like the bench press require many stabilizer and synergistic muscle assistance to complete the lift.
Free weight exercises like the dumbbell press or squat put a very large amount of stress on supporting muscle groups. You will get fatigued faster and not be able to lift as much weight as you did on the machine. But you will gain more muscle, become stronger very quickly and have a true gauge of your strength.
If you use machines in your program, they should be used to work isolated areas and only after all multi-jointed exercises have been completed. Beginners should begin with a limited combination of machine exercises, bodyweight exercises and multi-jointed free weight exercises. Before increasing the weight levels, they should work on becoming familiar with the proper form and execution of each.
The following are some proven basic exercises to encourage muscle and strength gain unlike any other exercises.
Bench Presses - works the chest, shoulders, triceps
Overhead Presses - shoulders, triceps
Pull-ups/Barbell Rows - back, bicep
Squats - legs, lower back
Dead lifts - legs, back, shoulders
Bar Dips -shoulders, chest, arms
To build mass, you must weight train with heavy weights. To consider a weight heavy, you should only be able to do a maximum of 4-8 reps before your muscles temporarily fail. A weight is considered 'light' if you can do more than 15 reps before muscle fatigue sets in. Heavy weights stimulate more muscle fibers than lighter weights which result in more muscle growth. Heavy weight training puts a huge strain on your body, so adequate rest and recuperation after your workouts is essential.
Eating guidelines for building muscle:
A high protein diet is an inevitable part of any weight training programme, importantly, protein derived from animal sources. Proteins you need to be concerned with are those found in whey, casein (cottage cheese), eggs, beef, poultry, and fish. Soy protein, tofu and bean curd are some alternatives. Eating the right amount of foods consistently will force your body to grow beyond what you may think possible. The diet also should contain an adequate amount of carbohydrates (potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams, oatmeal, cream of wheat, cream of rice, rice, beans, bread, pasta, all cereals) and fat. Green leafy vegetables and fruits also should be included.
When you train with weights, you should eat a minimum of 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight. You also must have protein at every meal. To enable your body to actually assimilate and use the all the calories you will ingest, you have to reduce your meal size and increase your meal frequency. Splitting your calories into smaller, more frequent portions will enable food absorption and utilization of nutrients.
During the past 20 years there have been great developments in the scientific understanding of the role of nutrition in health and physical performance. Studies shown that adequate dietary carbohydrate should be ingested (55-60% of total energy intake) so that training intensity can be maintained. Excess dietary saturated fat can exacerbate coronary artery disease; however, low-fat diets result in a reduction in circulating testosterone. So the balance between protein, carbohydrate and fat should be maintained.
So the focus on weight gain programmes must be on two components, lifting heavy weights, which will stimulate the largest amount of muscle fibers. Your body responds to this stimulus by increasing your muscle mass and secondly eat more calories than your body is used to. When you overload your system with plenty of protein and fats, your body has no other choice but to gain weight.
A Mass Gaining program is incomplete without the timely measurements to monitor your progress. Without it, you won't know how exactly your body is responding to your diet and training routine. Just looking in the mirror and guessing is not acceptable. If you want to start getting great results, you must develop the habit of accurately tracking your progress. This also provides the motivation to continue with the weight gain schedule and for the further progression. So even though you have a very thin body type, and haven't been able to gain weight no matter what you try, you will definitely succeed with a well planned weight gain programme.

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